Tactical Trauma Individual First Aid Kit – (IFAK)

The Real Response Tactical IFAK / Tactical Individual First Aid Kit is designed for those working in dynamic and hostile environments. The kit has everything one needs to stop a major extremity or junctional  haemorrhage and seal a open chest wound.

The kit itself is Australian made and battle tested. The velcro backing means it may be easier ripped off someones kit or belt to render self aid or aid to another.

Triad of Death

This Tactical IFAK has been designed to slow the progression of what is known as the triad of death. This refers to:

  1. Hypothermia
  2. Acidosis
  3. Coagulopathy which These have been recognised as a significant cause of death in patients with traumatic injuries.                      


Normal human body temperature is 35.6–37.8 degrees C with hypothermia being defined as a core temperature < 35 degrees C. In a study of 71 trauma victims, a core temperature < 32 degrees C was associated with 100% mortality independent of the presence of shock, injury severity or volume of fluid resuscitation.

Even mild hypothermia in a trauma patient can result in devastating physiologic consequences.


Is the term used to describe a broad group of disease states in which there is an impaired ability of this coagulation system to synthesise blood clots. It’s been repeatedly demonstrated that as a patient’s core temperature decreases, so does the body’s ability to stop bleeding.


A pH level is a measure of the blood’s acidity on a scale of 0–14; water has a “neutral” pH of 7.0. A healthy individual maintains a physiologically normal pH of 7.35–7.45.

Acidosis is defined as an arterial pH < 7.35 and can result from a variety of disease states. However, in trauma patients the major contributor is poor perfusion to the tissues. Anemia from acute blood loss, peripheral vasoconstriction in response to hypothermia and blood loss, and overall decreased cardiac output severely impair oxygen delivery to the tissues. This results in tissue oxygen demand far exceeding oxygen delivery.

As a trauma patient’s perfusion worsens, lactic acid rapidly accumulates in the tissues. This causes the body’s pH to drop, resulting in a severe metabolic acidosis.


Gerecht Ryan, Trauma’s Lethal Triad of Hypothermia, Acidosis & Coagulopathy Create a Deadly Cycle for Trauma Patients. Journal of Emergency Medical Service. 2014;39(4).